I would normally begin a series by exploring the origin of the problems. These would have included four decades of failure in multiple sectors of public transportation. Among its fellow modes, the motorcoach industry created the fewest of these failures. But the motorcoach industry has been lim- ited in its capabilities to contribute to the current crisis by poor decisions made above and around it, and beyond its control, for at least four decades now – as I have noted in many NATIONAL BUS TRADER articles. Decades of mistakes now threaten the motorcoach industry’s very survival. But they have also compromised the industry’s ability to contribute to much-needed solu- tions.
Beyond those things outside our control, the industry has failed to adopt countless approaches which would have provided it with far more flexibility. In this first install- ment, I will share some things the industry can still do to help both itself and our plight ingeneral – atleastintheory.
Mode Split and Trade-offs
The risks of contact with others has nat- urally triggered a quick and radical mode- split from large shared-ride vehicles to exclu- sive-ride vehicles. The failures of these smaller vehicles to accommodate their new roles has been addressed often in past install- ments of “Safety and Liability.” (See “Drivers v. Robots, Part 2: The Nature of Modern Travel,” in NATIONAL BUS TRADER, Septem- ber, 2019, in particular). The underutilization of these smaller modes continues. These fail- ures may be covered further in future install- ments – if other urgencies do not eclipse doing so. Otherwise, with the breakneck speed of the Covid-19’s spread, many points will be obvious or obsolete by the time these installments reach publication.
This mode-split has left motorcoaches with important, much-needed roles they could have fulfilled if the industry and envi- ronment surrounding it had been better structured and better supported. The most obvious problem, of course, is that our healthcare system that was overwhelmed with this unexpected virus and is trying to catch up with masks, goggles, beds, venti- lators, healthcare workers, and too little equipment to protect them or their patients.
More recently, action is underway to increase production of necessary items and address these shortages. An army of coders may enhance security and surveillance. But it is no replacement for a nurse.
As we try to catch up, despite the pesti- lence and death in our wake, our industry can still contribute. Among ground vehicles of all types and sizes, motorcoaches have the most to offer. For one, motorcoaches are the only ones with restrooms. This single feature makes motorcoaches exponentially more safe for passenger travel than any large vehi- cle counterpart.
Using a fourth of the seating capacity would easily separate passengers from one another by six feet, with two padded barriers between every one of them. Supplied with a modicum of safety equipment (masks, gloves and even disposable hospital gowns or washable shop coats), with access to plenty of soap, water and toilets, motor- coaches would appear to be the only mode which could actually transport a mix of healthy and infected passengers at minimal risk. Because we may have limited testing capabilities, this passenger mix will often be traveling together unknowingly. So this motorcoach capability is an extraordinary advantage. Cleaner interior air could be fur- ther enhanced by opening roof hatches and cracking open emergency exit windows.
Particularly with the right clothing and protective devices, drivers would likewise be shielded from the passengers, and vice versa. With first-World hospital-quality masks, gloves, goggles and disposable or washable uniforms, drivers could even con- tinue to spot or assist passengers on and off the stepwell. Apart from passengers likely volunteering to help, even union rules could be bent to permit drivers to disinfect the pas- senger compartment. Disposable or wash- able slip covers could be placed on every seat, and changed following each passen- ger’s use of it.
With these few modifications, it is not hard to see how motorcoaches could provide virus-safe schoolbus service, which regular
school buses cannot. (Students could even wash their hands upon boarding, and toss used tissues into the toilet – which the wider passenger aisles would facilitate.) Without the crossing equipment, operating adjust- ments would have to be made. But such adjustments could be made in countless ways, including routing changes which do not require crossing.
This last challenge (i.e., crossing safety) is not endemic to fixed route transit service, where motorcoaches so equipped could also operate far more safely – not even factoring in the elimination of standees which greater passenger spacing would automatically facilitate.
Regarding the deployment of motor- coaches for schoolbus service, some schools may open while their bus services are not equivalently safe. Traditional school buses might malfunction as short-trip petri dishes. Long before the pandemic is under control, motorcoaches could still make a contribu- tion. Interestingly, all coaches manufactured after November of 2016 have three-point occupant restraint systems, and some of their seats are even compartmentalized. Like school buses, they prohibit standees – even while the increased spacing among passen- gers would eliminate them anyway. The fact that motorcoaches and modified transit or suburban buses provide pupil transporta- tion service in all but two countries in the world (not including a small number of exceptions in Saudi Arabia and China) illus- trates how appropriate deploying motor- coaches for pupil transportation would be. One would be exaggerating to characterize this role as an innovation.
Then there are more urgent and unusual passenger-carrying needs and opportunities. Many healthcare workers often need to travel significant distances. With hotels and restaurants largely shutdown, long distance travel by automobile is challenging, and often not possible. Particularly with their restrooms, electrical sockets (which could easily accommodate portable refrigerators) and reclining seats, long-distance transporta- tion by motorcoach can also be well-accom- modated by team drivers. Healthcare work- ers are not the only individuals who need to travel long distances on short notice. As this installment is being written, national guard units are being called up in most states. Other military personnel must cross state lines. All type and manner of personnel may
An army of coders is no replacement for a nurse.
26 • National Bus Trader / April, 2020
Safety and Liability
Motorcoaches carried or may still carry mail and small packages.
Coaches are already equipped with electrical sockets, WiFi, heating, air conditioning, sinks and toilets.
need to be distributed long distances, par- ticularly as the intensity of needs are not aligned with the normal distribution of our population. Major hot spots are thousands of miles apart. New York City and Seattle are already overwhelmed. New hot spots emerge daily.
Another overlooked role for motor- coaches is food-shopping. If our foolishly- splayed taxi fleets and armada of non-pro- fessionally-operated, drive-when-you-want Uber and Lyft vehicles are overwhelmed (at least they should be, in theory), many indi- viduals without access to personal vehicles will be stranded from food and medical sup- plies. The notion of scheduling and dispatch- ing full-size vehicles to accommodate such individuals is rare, but hardly novel. In the 1970s, the Tulsa Dial-A-Ride system pro- vided 10.8 passenger trips per hour (today’s systems barely provide a trip per hour) largely because it provided regularly-sched- uled grocery shopping to clusters of mostly elderly passengers. During my examination of this system while directing the USDOT’s first nationwide examination of special sys- tems accommodating elderly and disabled individuals, one full size bus on which I rode was so full that many grocery bags had to be placed in the passenger aisle. This role would be even easier for a large vehicle with luggage bays. Unfortunately, the inefficiency of our current paratransit systems renders them useless as a potential contributor to address our current needs. But our motor- coaches could do much.
For those older readers with good mem- ories, or even today in rare parts of the coun- try, motorcoaches carried or may still carry mail and small packages. Particularly with padded seating on the interior, interior pack- age racks, and huge luggage bays, the sup- ply role of motorcoaches could expand sig- nificantly. Our 33,000 motorcoach might not add significantly to the millions of trucks on the roadways. But the last decade’s replace- ment of stores with delivery services now compounded by progressive quarantines has made every last available truck essential. The unique variety of freight capacity and driver accommodations provided by motor- coaches affords them capabilities which other “supply ships” do not have. The unique variety of carrying capacity enables a motorcoach to carry beds, masks, goggles, swabs, gowns, shop coats, medicine, con-
struction materials, tools and various sup- plies in the luggage bays, while transporting more-sensitive cargo (e.g., testing equip- ment, computers, medicine, instruments, ventilators, etc.) on padded seats. There are not nearly enough motorcoaches to provide the bulk of this transportation. But motor- coaches could and should serve as the fleet’s flag ships.
Another important role lies in delivery, particularly as the last decade has focused on the replacement of stores with delivery services. During a pandemic, drivers of all delivery modes lie at risk. Many have no access to restrooms; few customers allow them to use such facilities at the destinations. These challenges are greater in rural areas where trip lengths are longer and destina- tions lie farther apart.
Because the virus had compounded our reliance on delivery vehicles, many drivers are continuing to work while experiencing virus symptoms. Others are not. So the tra- ditional delivery fleet is both underutilized and overwhelmed. Given the disappearance of amenities, operating conventional deliv- ery vehicles increases the hardships on even perfectly healthy drivers. Because modern motorcoaches are equipped with outlets and wi-fi, small portable refrigerators can carry food and medicine, and outlets can provide power to microwave ovens. Dishes and utensils can be cleaned in the restrooms. On long-distance trips without team drivers, vehicle operators can fall asleep in reclining seats while watching the news on video monitors, while their phones are being charged.
Hospitals on Wheels
In a previous column about the use of motorcoaches to house the homeless (see “Making More Money – The Homeless Bus” (NATIONAL BUS TRADER, December, 2012), I noted that with a simple modification, each pair of bucket seats could be transformed into a short bed with a cheap, lightweight, portable insert (using materials like Styro- foam or other non-porous surfaces which can be cleaned and disinfected). For more serious needs, a few bolts each could be removed from each pair of seats and the entire vehicle could be retrofitted with hos- pital cots. Already equipped with electrical sockets, wi-fi, heating, A/C, sinks and toi- lets, each coach could be quickly and easily
converted into a small hospital unit. More interesting, unlike any other solution, this hospital could also serve as its own ambu- lance. Plus, many motorcoaches manufac- tured since 2001 – which includes most of those still on the road – have a wheelchair lift, facilitating not only the transfer of patients on and off, but the loading and unloading of supplies and waste. The MCI D45 CRT LE would be better yet: The vestibule could be converted into a health- secure sanctuary for round-the-clock, on- board healthcare workers.
Costs, Fares and Reality
Even if deployed solely in passenger ser- vice, a pure fare-based recovery of operating costs is clearly not possible in the near future because the nature of Covid-19 necessarily constrains vehicle capacity. But the fact that our network of smaller vehicles is so ineffi- cient and has been so underutilized only heightens the need for the intelligent deploy- ment and use of motorcoaches.
As noted, using the full capacity of a motorcoach would compromise the health of the passengers. But using a fourth or a sixth of their capacity in passenger service, motorcoaches would require far fewer sub- sidies per passenger trip than many fixed route transit systems. In recent months, the reality of declining ridership combined with embarrassing fare recovery ratios (some sys- tems recover a low one-digit percentage of their operating costs from farebox revenue), a handful of transit systems stopped charg- ing fares altogether. In this context, the cost of subsidizing a subset of our 33,000 motor- coaches for a moderate period of time would be trivial. In contrast, the multiple uses to which these vehicles could be put appears vital.
Of course, charging bridge and tunnel fees to vehicles which carry the same num- ber of passengers as 40 cars illustrates a degree of enlightenment which is as embar- rassing as it is counterproductive. So the fail- ure to factor in the importance of motor- coaches into disaster-mitigation strategies is not just a recent failure. I wrote about this failure in response to the Hurricane Katrina disaster in this very column 14 1⁄2 years ago (see “Plans, Preparation and the S-Word” in NATIONAL BUS TRADER (November, 2005.) Since then, we have learned or care nothing about this potential.
Flexibility and Opportunity.
In 2012, I wrote a year-long series of installments for NATIONAL BUS TRADER titled “Making More Money.” Most of these ideas were largely marketing ideas which would not have altered the structure, or even the cosmetics, of the vehicle. A few of these variations have occasionally been deployed, although none have been widely replicated.
National Bus Trader / April, 2020 • 27
Most applicable of these variations to today’s situation was “The Homeless Bus” (December, 2012), referenced above. My sec- retary at the time of that installment’s writ- ing was a friend of my City’s current mayor. As a reward for her ‘round-the-clock’ cam- paign efforts, she left my company to serve as the newly-elected mayor’s lead official in charge of the homeless. She actually tried to suggest this approach as a means of housing half the City’s homeless population (then only about 30,000). After three months of frustration at her powerlessness, she stormed out of her job with a flurry of four- letter-words.
So with my City now at the epicenter of our nation’s pandemic, it is fair for me to be abnormally angry about its failure to incor- porate the various sectors of the public trans- portation industry (not merely motor- coaches) into any solutions. Efforts to blame the City’s plight entirely on failures at the Federal level is a sloppy half-truth. Frankly, I would not have expected much more from a city where its taxi fleet was decimated (see “Drivers v. Robots, Part 2 – The Nature of Modern Travel” in NATIONAL BUS TRADER, September, 2019). But the City’s reckless indifference to this solution for the homeless population clearly kept any notion of putting
its 1500 motorcoaches to good use in any emergency far from decision-makers’ minds.
With even the rudimentary changes noted, motorcoaches could remain on the road not only in their normal roles, but in expanded roles for carrying passengers, and in a broad range of non-traditional/non-pas- senger-carrying roles for which they are bet- ter-equipped than many or most the vehicles currently performing these roles.
Rather than fade into bankruptcy as eight-wheeled rolling ghosts, motorcoaches could and should be deployed as the heart of our passenger, personnel, freight, delivery and hospital network. We are lucky to have such resources at our disposal. Regrettably, we are too unimaginative, too ignorant, too disorganized and too clueless to use them. Instead, we are squandering a valuable life- saving, industry-sustaining and job-saving capability in our midst, leaving its vehicles lying around collecting dust. Instead of park- ing this fleet while its drivers starve, both motorcoach companies and drivers should be earning bonanzas. Along the way, they should be earning our gratitude. Instead, the failure to employ them as resources, like an unlimited number of similar failures, deserves only our blame and our scorn.
The opinions expressed in this article are that of the author and do not necessarily represent the opinions of NATIONAL BUS TRADER, Inc. or its staff and management.